Preventing Illness
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Health

Bathing

Bathing can be soothing. It can become part of your daily routine with your child. Click here for some things to think about to keep your child safe when bathing.

Urinating and Bowel Movements

Your baby will urinate (pee) several times a day.

Your baby’s first bowel movements will be black and then change to yellow, green, tan, or brown. The softness or firmness also varies. Your baby may not have regular (daily) bowel movements until he starts to eat solid food.

Sometimes babies and young children get constipated. For more information, click here.

Sometimes babies and young children have diarrhea. For more information, please click here.

Make sure that you thoroughly clean your baby’s genitals and bum with a warm wet cloth or baby wipes each time your change the diaper. Your baby may develop diaper rash. This is common. Click here for more information.

For information about toilet training, please click here.

Bedwetting or having night time accidents is not seen as a problem until a child reaches the age of 7. Before this, your child may wet the bed from time to time as his bladder control develops.

Children with Special Needs

Sometimes children are born with special physical, emotional, or learning needs. Sometimes these develop after birth due to development, injury, or illness. There are many organizations that can help you to support your child to live life to his fullest. These organizations can help you get equipment or special therapies. They can also support you, including providing respite care or overnight nursing.

Male Circumcision

Circumcision is the process of cutting off the foreskin of a penis. Boys can be circumcised for religious, social, and health reasons. It is your choice whether you circumcise your child. Children who are circumcised have a lower chance of urinary track infections throughout their lives as well as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV) in adulthood. However, proper cleaning of the foreskin and penis can prevent these risks as well.

Female Circumcision

In Canada, female circumcision is against the law. Performing a female circumcision without a medical professional can be dangerous. Talk to your healthcare professional.

Vitamins and Supplements

Vitamins and Supplements

If you are breastfeeding, you will have to give your child a supplement of Vitamin D. Click here for more information.

Once your child starts eating solid foods, she should be getting all of the nutrients, vitamins, and minerals she needs from the food she eats. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist before giving your child vitamins or supplements.

Water

It is important to make sure that your family has a source of clean, safe water for cooking, eating, and cleaning. If you use your own water source, your water should be tested twice per year such as in the spring and fall, or if concerns arise. Click here for more information. If you have been notified of a boil water advisory in your area, follow the precautions outlined by your Health Authority.

Preventing Illness

Proper handwashing is the best way to prevent illnesses from being spread from one person to another. For information about teaching your child how to wash her hands, click here.

Preventing Illness

Immunization (vaccination) can protect your child from some diseases. These diseases can make your child very sick and, in some cases, can kill her. For more information about immunization, click here.

Signs of Illness

Your child will get sick from time to time, just like you do.

Here are some signs that your child may show when she is sick.

Signs of Illness

  • Your child may be quieter, moodier, sleepier, or more restless than usual.
  • Your child’s behaviours may be more extreme than usual.
  • Your child may refuse more than one meal.
  • Your child may vomit (throw up) all or part of her meal.
  • Your child’s bowel movements (poos) may suddenly increase or decrease.
  • Your child may be flushed or pale.
  • Your child’s skin may be dry or hot.
  • Your child may sweat a lot.
  • Your child may be having difficulty breathing.
  • Your child’s cough may get worse.
  • Your child may be bothered by light.
  • Your child’s eyes may be red, painful, or itchy.
  • Your child may be in pain.
  • Your child’s body may be twitching, shaking, stiff, or immobile.
If you are worried about your child’s health, contact your healthcare provider or HealthLine at 811 or www.saskatchewan.ca.

If Your Child is Sick…

  • Encourage your child to drinks lots of water.
  • Take your child’s temperature. For more information, click here.
  • Encourage your child to rest. This does not mean that they have to stay in bed or sleep. Encourage quiet activities, like colouring or playing with blocks, instead of running and playing outside.

Prescription Medications

Prescription Medications

Not all health issues can be treated with medication. Sometimes the best you can do is help your child to rest, drink water, and treat some of the symptoms.

Your healthcare professionals will know when your child needs a prescription or not.

Your healthcare professional may feel that your child needs medicine to get better. Your healthcare professional will explain to you what the medicine is and how your child needs to take it. You will take the prescription to a pharmacist. If you have any questions about the prescription, you can talk to your pharmacist or healthcare professional.

Giving Medication

For some parents, giving medication to their child is easy. For most, it can be a struggle. For more information about giving your child medications, click here.

First Aid

Knowing basic first aid skills is important. First aid skills are the things that you can do to help your child in case of injury or illness. First aid training helps you figure out when you need to go to a healthcare professional. First aid can also prevent an illness or injury from getting worse. Click for more information.

Common Childhood Health Issue

Click below for more information about the common health issues that children experience.

You will find information about:

  • what it is
  • what the symptoms are
  • when to see a healthcare professional
  • how it is spread
  • how it is treated
  • how it is prevented

Chicken Pox

Chicken pox (varicella) is caused by a virus. Chicken pox is a common childhood illness. It is also an illness that can be prevented. Both pregnant women and children can get a vaccine that will protect them against the chicken pox virus.

Having chicken pox is not dangerous for most children. However, infants and children who have weak immune systems can get very sick. Some children have to be hospitalized because of complications. In rare cases, people can die from chicken pox.

Chicken Pox

Symptoms

Your child can be exposed to the chicken pox virus a long time before he has any symptoms. The first symptoms your child will have are fever, aches, and pains.

Two to three days after these symptoms, children will develop a rash. This rash appears as small pink spots that turn into small water blisters. These are often very itchy. The water blisters scab over in approximately 5 days.

When to See a HealthCare Provider

See a healthcare professional, if your child:

  • has a chicken pox spot that becomes large, red, and sore
  • has a lot of spots in his mouth
  • has a fever that comes back
  • does not want to play, eat, or drink

Treatment

  • There is no treatment for chicken pox. Your physician might give your child anti-viral medication if your child has other medical concerns.
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be given to children over 2 years old to help with fever and body aches. Follow the directions on the package.
    Aspirin vs Tylenol
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can cause damage your child’s liver and brain.
  • A bath with baking soda and warm water can help with the itching.

Spread

The chicken pox virus is airborne. This means that the virus can be spread by people who have chicken pox when they breathe, cough, or sneeze. It can also be spread through contact with the rash or blisters. Once the blisters have dried up and scabbed over, chicken pox is no longer contagious.

Prevention

Healthy children should get immunized against chicken pox. People who live with children and work with children should also get the chicken pox vaccine.

Prevention

Chicken pox can be passed from one person to another easily. Keep your child home from daycare or school while she is sick. Your child can go back to school when she feels better.

Teach your child how to wash her hands. Washing hands is the best way to prevent the spread of diseases.

Washing Your Hands

Constipation

Constipation is common in children. If your child is constipated, she will have a hard time having a bowel movement (pooping). Her stool (poo) will be hard and dry.

Symptoms of Constipation

  • Having 3 or less bowel movements (poop) a week
  • Having trouble having a bowel movement (poop)
  • Straining when having a bowel movement (poop)
  • Having pain when having a bowel movement (poop)
  • Seeing blood on the toilet paper after wiping
  • Having stool that is hard, dry, and large
  • Feeling full or bloated
  • Having stomach pain or cramps
  • Having small liquid or soft stool (poo) marks on your child’s diaper or underwear

When to See a Healthcare Provider?

Sometimes there are medical reasons why a child has constipation. If your child has lots of problems with constipation and it disrupts her regular routine, take her to your healthcare provider for a check-up.

See your doctor if your child:

  • Has blood in her stool (poo)
  • Has a fever
  • Is urinating (peeing) often
  • Finds urinating (peeing) painful
  • Loses control and doesn’t make it to the bathroom in time (after being toilet trained)
  • Has a hard time having a bowel movement (poop)
  • Has not had a bowel movement in 4 days

Take your child to the hospital if:

  • she is having a lot of pain
  • she is vomiting (throwing up) a lot
  • she is vomiting (throwing up) dark green fluid
  • her stomach is swollen

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment and prevention are the same for constipation.

  • Increase the amount of water your child drinks.
  • Give your child more foods that are high in fibre.
  • Decrease the amount of foods your child eats that are high in fat.
  • Make sure your child gets plenty of exercise.
  • Eat meals at the same time every day.
  • Help your child learn ways to cope with her stress.
  • Help your child develop a habit of having a bowel movement (poop) every day. You cannot force your child to have a bowel movement. Having a bathroom routine will help your child have a bowel movement every day.
  • Make sure your child has enough time to use the toilet, for instance, 10 minutes after dinner.
  • Allow your child to have regular access to the bathroom.

Spread

Constipation does not spread from one person to another.

Croup (laryngitis)

Croup is a common childhood illness. Croup can be caused by a lot of different viruses. These viruses cause an infection in the child’s throat and vocal cords. In children under 5, this infection is called croup. In older children and adults, it is called laryngitis.

Symptoms

  • Cold symptoms (stuffy nose, headache, and sore throat)
  • Fever
  • Cough that sounds like a bark and may be worse at night
  • Red, swollen throat and voice box
  • Hoarse or croaky voice
  • Trouble breathing
  • Fast and noisy breathing
  • Tired
  • Symptoms can get worse when a child is excited

When to Get Help:

Call your healthcare provider or HealthLine (811) if your child has:

  • a fever and is under 6 months old
  • a fever for more than 72 hours (3 days)
  • bluish-coloured lips or nails
  • difficulty breathing
  • a hard time breathing when lying down
  • rapid breathing
  • a lot of drool
  • problems swallowing
  • no energy
  • stops responding to you

Treatment and Care

  • Keep your child calm.
  • Offer a lot of fluids, like breast milk and water.
  • Use a cold mist humidifier.
    Use a cold mist humidifier
  • Unless your doctor tells you to, do not use over-the-counter cough and cold medications for any children under 6 years old.
  • Regular Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be given to children over 2 years old to help decrease pain and bring down the fever. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours (a day).
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can damage your child’s liver and brain.

Aspirin vs Tylenol

Spread

The viruses that cause croup can spread through the air on water droplets that leave a person when they breathe, cough, or sneeze.

The viruses that cause croup can be spread through touch. Your child can get croup if she touches the hands of someone who has croup or who has taken care of someone who has croup.

Prevention

Wash your child’s and your own hands frequently.

Teach your child how to wash her hands properly.

Washing Your Hands

Teach your child to cough and sneeze into her upper arm or a tissue.

Teach your child to cough and sneeze

Diaper Rash

Diaper rash is very common. It is caused by your child’s diaper rubbing against his skin. It can also be caused by certain foods, allergies to chemicals, yeast infection, or having a wet diaper for a long time.

Symptoms

Identifying Diaper Rash

When to See a Healthcare Provider

Contact a healthcare professional:

  • if there are open sores
  • if there is pus (white, yellow, or green drainage)
  • if the rash keeps getting worse

Treatment

Diaper Rash Treatment

  • Leave your baby’s diaper off. Air will help heal the rash.
  • Put zinc oxide ointment on the rash before putting on your child’s diaper. Your pharmacist can help you find this cream.

Spread

Diaper rash cannot spread to another child.

Prevention

  • Do not use baby wipes; use soap and water instead.
  • Do not use lotion, baby oil, or powder in your child’s diaper area.
  • Keep your baby clean and dry.
  • Change your child’s diapers often.

Diarrhea

When your child has diarrhea, she will have more bowel movements (poop) than usual. Her stool (poo) will be loose, runny, or watery.

Diarrhea can be caused by many things, e.g., bacteria and viruses. Diarrhea is common in young children.

Diarrhea can be dangerous. It can cause dehydration. Dehydration means that your child does not have enough water in her body. Dehydration can make your child very sick.

Symptoms

  • Loose or watery stool (poo)
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Throwing up
  • Cramps
  • Stomach pain
  • Blood or mucous in her stool (poo)

When to Contact a Healthcare Provider

Take your child to a healthcare provider if she:

  • Is under 6 months old
  • Is peeing more than she usually does
  • Is more thirsty than she usually is
  • Has a fast heartbeat
  • Has sunken eyes
  • Has no tears when she cries
  • Has grey-coloured skin
  • Has a dry mouth, throat, or tongue
  • Has black or bloody stool (poo)
  • Is throwing up (vomiting) blood
  • Has pain in her stomach that keeps getting worse
  • Has diarrhea for more than 24 hours
  • Has a high fever that doesn’t go away after 72 hours (3 days)

Treatment

The goal of treatment for diarrhea is to keep your child from getting dehydrated.

  • Give your child a lot of liquids, like water or breast milk.
  • If formula feeding, do not dilute the formula.
  • If your child is not taking fluids, you can offer oral re-hydration fluid. These can be bought at the pharmacy. Ask your pharmacist for more information.
  • If you cannot get oral re-hydration fluid, you can make your own. Mix 4 cups of boiled water with 4 teaspoons of sugar and ½ teaspoon of salt.
  • Give one tablespoon of oral re-hydration fluid every 10 minutes.

Rehydration Fluid

Spread

The virus or bacteria that causes diarrhea can spread quickly between children and between children and adults.

Prevention

5 Steps to Food Safety

Ear Infection

Middle ear infections are common in young children. Often, they are not serious or contagious. Ear infections often follow a cold.

Ear Infection

Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Fussiness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Pain in the ears
  • Trouble hearing quiet sounds
  • Tugging, pulling, or itching of the ears

Tugging, pulling or itching of the ears

When to See a Healthcare Provider

Contact a healthcare provider if your child has an ear infection and:

  • Has other medical problems
  • Is throwing up often
  • Is younger than 6 months old
  • Is older than 6 months and has had a fever for more than 48 hours
  • Has swelling behind her ear
  • Is very sleepy
  • Is very irritable
  • Has problems hearing

To diagnose an ear infection, a healthcare professional will use an otoscope. The otoscope is an instrument that has a light on it. This helps the doctor see in your child’s ear.

Treatment

  • For infections that are minor (not too much discomfort and no high fever), the healthcare provider will most likely wait to see if the ear infection goes away by itself. If it does not go away after 48 hours or gets worse, take your child back to your healthcare provider.
  • Your healthcare provider may give your child antibiotics if:
    • Your child has a high fever (more than 39C (°F)
    • Your child has severe pain
    • Your child’s condition does not improve over 48 hours
    • Your child’s ear canal has new fluid in it
  • If your child is over the age of 2, give regular Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be used to decrease your child’s pain. Give your child over the age of 2 Tylenol to help bring down the fever. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours (a day).
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can damage your child’s liver and brain.

Aspirin vs Tylenol

Spread

Ear infections cannot be spread from person to person. However, the virus that caused the original illness (e.g., a cold) can be.

Prevention

Fever

When you have a fever your body temperature is higher than 37°C (98.6°F). Fevers are normal if your child has an infection. Fevers usually go away in 72 hours. Fevers are usually not dangerous.

Fever

Taking Your Child’s Temperature

There are a lot of ways that a child’s temperature can be taken: rectally, in the armpit, in the ear, or by mouth. The best method depends on your child’s age. The videos below and the chart will help guide you in taking your child’s temperature.

Link to videos:

Age Method
Birth to Two First Choice: Rectal (anal)
Second Choice: Armpit
Two to Five Years First Choice: Rectal (anal)
Second Choice: Ear or armpit
Six and older First Choice: Mouth
Second Choice: Ear or Armpit

When to See a Healthcare Provider

See your healthcare provider if your child:

  • Is under 6 months old AND has a fever
  • Has had a fever for more than 6 days
  • Is older than 6 months old AND has a fever over 39.5°C (F)
  • Is really sleepy or has low energy
  • Is really cranky, restless, or irritable
  • Is wheezing
  • Has a cough that will not stop or go away
  • Has a rash or other signs of illness that worry you
  • Has a febrile (fever) seizure that lasts more than 3 minutes

Treatment

  • Give your child lots of fluids, e.g., water or breast milk.
    Give your child lots of fluids
  • Offer your child small amounts of food.
  • Let your child rest. Your child will need more rest than usual. However, he doesn’t have to be kept still or stay in bed.
  • Keep your child home from daycare, preschool, or school.
  • Keep your child warm. Shivering raises body heat and can increase your child’s temperature.
  • Your child will sweat. This can make your child cold. Keep him warm, dry, and clothed.
  • If your child is over the age of 2, give regular Tylenol (acetaminophen) to help bring down the fever. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours (a day).
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can damage your child’s liver and brain .

Aspirin vs Tylenol

Febrile Seizures

Febrile seizures are seizures caused by high fevers. During a febrile seizure, your child’s body will go stiff and begin shaking. Febrile seizures occur in children between 6 months and 6 years of age. These seizures can be scary for parents but are fairly normal. They are usually not harmful. If you are worried, talk to your healthcare provider.

Handwashing

Handwashing is the best way to stay healthy. Remember that your child learns through your example.

When Should You Wash Your Hands

  • Before touching and making food
  • Before feeding your child
  • Before eating
  • After using the bathroom
  • After helping your child use the bathroom
  • Before and after changing diapers
  • Before putting a bandage on yourself and your child
  • After touching pets or other animals
  • After cleaning and touching garbage
  • After blowing your nose or coughing into your hand
  • After you help your child blow his nose

When Should Children Wash Their Hands?

Handwashing

How to Wash Your Hands

Watch this short video. It helps to explain how to teach your child to wash her hands properly. It also explains why handwashing is important.

Washing Your Hands

  • Run your hands under warm water.
  • Rub your hands together with soap for 20 seconds. Sing Twinkle Twinkle Little Star or the ABCs while washing your hands. When the song is finished, 20 seconds is up.
  • Make sure you wash every finger, between the fingers, and under the nails.
  • Rinse your hands for 10 seconds.
  • Dry your hands with paper towel or a clean towel.

Impetigo

Impetigo is an infection caused by bacteria. The bacteria can get into scrapes and bug bites and cause an infection. All children can be infected with impetigo.

Symptoms

  • A rash that appears around the mouth, nose, or skin not covered by clothes. The rash is a cluster of red bumps or blisters. These may ooze or be covered with a honey-coloured crust.
  • If the infection is severe, your child may have a fever, pain, swelling, and weakness.

rash

When to Contact a Healthcare Professional

Your child will need to be seen by a healthcare professional. Your child will need to take antibiotics.

Treatment

Your child will be given antibiotics. Make sure that your child takes the medicine as the healthcare professional prescribes.

Keep the sores covered with gauze.

Keep your child home from daycare and school until your healthcare professional says it is alright to go out.

Spread

Impetigo can spread to another person if that person touches the rash. Impetigo can also spread by touching bedsheets, towels, or clothing that have touched the infected child’s skin.

Prevention

  • Wash your child’s and your hands thoroughly with soap and water after touching the infected skin.
  • Teach your child how to wash his hands properly.
    Washing Your Hands
  • Do not share clothes or towels between family members.
  • Wash bedding, clothes, and towels in hot water and dry thoroughly.
    Wash bedding, clothes, and towels

Jaundice

Many babies have mild jaundice when they are born. Jaundice is caused by a build-up of a chemical (bilirubin) in your baby’s blood. Your baby’s liver may not be functioning well enough yet to get rid of this chemical. Severe jaundice can be harmful to your baby. It can affect your baby’s nervous system and brain.

Symptoms

  • The skin on the face appears yellow. Later the chest, stomach, arms, and legs look yellow.
  • The whites of the eyes also look yellow.

When to See Your Healthcare Professional

Your healthcare professional will assess your baby for jaundice before you leave the hospital. Once home, if you notice your baby has yellowish skin on her chest, stomach, arms, and legs, contact your healthcare professional. Your healthcare professional will look at your baby’s skin and take a blood test. The blood test will check your baby’s bilirubin level.

Treatment

Your baby will have his clothes removed and be placed under special lights. Your baby’s eyes will be covered. This protects the eyes. The lights help your baby’s body get rid of bilirubin.

When to See Your Healthcare Professional

Spread

Jaundice does not spread from one person to another.

Lice

Lice are very common in children. Many children will have at least one case of lice before the end of elementary school.

Lice are small bugs that live in hair. They do not spread disease.

Lice

Anybody can get lice.

Lice eggs (nits) are white-grey, tan, or yellow. They are small and oval. Sometimes nits look like dandruff. Nits are found close to the scalp.

Lice are hard to see because they are small. Lice are black. A louse is the size of a sesame seed. Lice can live for a long time on a person’s head (up to 30 days) and will continue to produce nits.

Symptoms

  • Itchy scalp
  • Seeing lice in your child’s hair
  • You can have lice and have no symptoms at all

For information about how to check your child’s hair for lice, please click here.

When to Contact a Healthcare Professional

You do not need to contact a healthcare professional if your child has lice.

Treatment

  • Talk to your pharmacist about treatments for lice. Tell your pharmacist your child’s age. Some treatments are not safe for young children.
    • Follow the directions on the package.
    • Don’t leave the shampoo in longer than the instructions say.
    • Rinse the hair with cool water after treatment.
    • Comb your child’s hair in small sections with a nit comb. Nit combs have teeth (tines) that are very close together. Because nits (lice eggs) are so small, regular combs and brushes do not catch them.
      Nit combs
  • After treating your child’s hair to get rid of the lice and nits, wash all sheets, towels, clothes, and hats in hot water and dry on high heat.
  • Stuffed animals, pillows, and blankets can be placed in a sealed plastic bag for two weeks. This bag can also be put in the freezer for 24 hours.
  • Re-treat your child’s hair after 7 to 10 days.

Spread

Lice are spread through:

  • head-to-head contact
  • sharing combs, hats, hairbrushes, and other things that touch a person’s hair
  • head lice can live on blankets, sheets, and clothes for up to 3 days
  • head lice cannot be spread through pets

Prevention

  • Unless your child’s school has a “no nit” policy, there is no reason for your child to stay home.
  • Check your child’s hair frequently.
  • Do not share things that touch your child’s hair, e.g., hats, brushes, and headphones.
  • After treating your child’s hair, wash all sheets, towels, clothes, and hats in hot water and dry on high heat.
  • Stuffed animals, pillows, and blankets can be placed in a sealed plastic bag for two weeks. This bag can also be put in the freezer for 24 hours.

Respiratory Distress

Sometimes newborns have problems breathing. There can be some simple reasons for this. For example, your baby may have breathing problems because his nose is plugged.

Treatment of a Plugged Nose

  • Buy nasal (nose) saline (salt) and bulb syringe from the pharmacy. Your pharmacist can help you find these.
  • Use nasal saline drops as instructed.
  • Use a bulb syringe to suck out the drops and mucus.
    nasal aspirator

Contact 911 or Your Healthcare Professional ImmediatelyIf your baby:

  • is breathing fast (more than 60 breaths in one minute)
  • is grunting when breathing
  • has a blue skin colour
  • is having a hard time breathing

Strep Throat (Streptococcus)

Strep throat is one reason why your child may have a sore throat. Strep throat is caused by bacteria.

Symptoms

  • Very sore throat
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Swollen/tender lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Nausea (sick to one’s stomach)
  • Stomach ache
  • Headache

Strep throat can cause kidney problems and rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is an illness that can lead to swollen joints, rashes, and heart damage.

When to Contact a Healthcare Professional

Strep throat needs to be treated by a healthcare professional. To diagnose, a swab will be taken from your child’s throat. This can look scary and be uncomfortable, but will not hurt your child.

When to Contact a Healthcare Professional

Treatment

  • Your child may be given an antibiotic. Follow the instructions for giving the medication.
  • Gargling with warm salt water can help decrease the pain in your child’s throat.
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be used to decrease your child’s pain. If you child is over 2 years old, you can give her Tylenol to help bring down the fever. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours (a day).
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can cause damage your child’s liver and brain.
  • Give your child plenty of fluids.
  • Make sure your child gets lots of rest.

Aspirin vs Tylenol

Spread

Strep throat is spread through:

  • coming in contact with an infected person’s saliva or mucus
  • coming in contact with droplets spread through the air when the infected person coughs or sneezes

Prevention

  • Teach your child to sneeze and cough into her upper arm or a tissue.
    Teach your child to cough and sneeze
  • Wash your child’s and your hands frequently.
  • Teach your child how to wash her hands properly.
    Washing Your Hands
  • Keep your child home until your healthcare professional says she can return to normal activities.

Medications

Not all medications are safe to give children. In fact, some may be very harmful. Talk to your healthcare professional, medSask, or your pharmacist before giving medication to your child. Always give medication the way that you have been instructed by your healthcare professional, medSask, or your pharmacist.

Remember that prescribed medication can only treat certain illnesses. Not all illnesses can be or should be treated with medication. Giving medications that are not needed can make them work less effectively when your child does need them. So can using other people’s medications.

How to give medication?

How to give medication

  • Keep your child and yourself calm.
  • Sit your child up.
  • Give small amounts until you reach the full amount in the instructions.
  • Put the medicine inside your child’s cheek. Do not force it down your child’s throat.
  • Do not mix medication in juice. Some of the medication will stick to the cup and your child will not get the full amount.
  • Give your child something good tasting to eat or drink afterwards.

Safety

  • Never tell your child that medication is candy or mix it with something really good tasting.
  • Keep all medication locked up or out of your child’s reach
  • Do not leave medication in your purse, bag, or anywhere that your child can reach.

First Aid

Knowing some basic first aid and CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) will ensure that you and your family stay safe. First aid and CPR is what you do to help someone right away before you are able to get medical help.

Courses

You can take first aid courses from St. John’s Ambulance and Canadian Red Cross.

First Aid Kit

It is important that you have a basic first aid kit at home. You can buy one or make one yourself. Make sure that it includes:

  • Emergency telephone list
  • Small and large gauze pads
  • First aid tape
  • Tensor bandage
  • Triangular bandage
  • Antibiotic cream
  • Different sizes of bandages
  • Scissors
  • Tweezers
  • Safety pins
  • Instant ice packs
  • Latex gloves
  • Antiseptic wipes
  • Pencil and paper
  • Emergency blanket
  • Eye patch
  • Thermometer
  • Face shield (mask)
  • First aid manual

Canadian First Cross. (n.d) Kit Contents. First Aid Kits.

Assessing a Situation

Make sure that you are safe before helping your child. It is important that you don’t get hurt as well. If you do, you may not be able to help your child.

Always CHECK the situation, then CALL for help, then CARE for your child.

Check

  • Is the space around your child safe? Check for broken glass, fire, wires, and gas.
  • Is your child conscious? Is he responding to you?
  • Can your child breathe? If your child is breathing, you can feel air coming out of his nose or mouth, his chest will rise and fall, and you will be able to hear his breath if you put your ear near his mouth. Open your child’s airway by gently tilting back his head and lifting his chin.
  • Is your child bleeding? You may need to put pressure on the wound to slow the bleeding.

Call

  • Call 911 to get help for your child.

Care

  • While waiting for help, do first aid if you need to.
  • Have your child rest quietly.
  • Keep your child warm.
  • Stay with your child.

Click here for information about first aid for specific injuries.

Animal and Human Bites

If your child is bitten by an animal or human:

  • rinse the bite under water
  • wash the bite with soap and water
  • dry the bite using a clean gauze pad
  • cover the bite with a clean gauze pad held on with first aid tape
  • keep your child warm and comfortable

Human and animal bites can get infected. Watch for signs of infection, like swelling, redness, warmth, and pus. See a healthcare professional if any of these happen or if the bite is severe and needs stitches.

Bug Bites

Bug bites can be uncomfortable. Sometimes people react to bug bites. If your child is allergic to a bug bite, she will get lots of swelling, a rash, and may have trouble breathing. Call 911.

Below is a list of things you can do to help your child if there is not a life threatening allergic reaction.

  • If there is a stinger in the bite, remove it by scraping it out. Do not squeeze it.
  • Wash the bite with soap and water.
  • Use an ice pack 20 minutes every hour to help reduce the swelling.

Bug bites can get infected if they are scratched. Contact your healthcare professional if there are signs of infection.

Burns

Burns make the skin look red and there may be some swelling. There will also be some pain. Some burns can be treated at home while others need medical attention right away.

If there are any blisters, take your child to a healthcare professional. After a few days, if your child’s burn changes colour, has blisters, has pus, or your child gets a fever, take him to a healthcare professional.

The following steps will help you take care of your child if she is burned.

  1. Run cold water over the burn. This should stop the pain.
  2. Put an antibiotic cream on the burn.
    Put an antibiotic cream on the burn

Bumps and Bruises

Children will get many bumps, bruises, and cuts throughout their lives. It is part of exploring the world, growing, and learning.

A bump is a swelling under the skin. Bruising is the leaking of blood vessels under the skin causing the skin to change colour.

The following steps will help you take care of your child’s bumps and bruises.

  1. Have your child rest.
  2. Put an ice pack on the bump for 20 minutes every hour for one to two days.
  3. Raise your child’s injury above the level of her heart. If this hurts your child, don’t do it.

Bumps on the head can be serious. They can cause concussions. See a healthcare professional if your child has any of the following after she has bumped her head.

  1. Headache
  2. Dizziness
  3. Confusion
  4. Problems with eyesight
  5. Problems breathing
  6. Seizures
  7. Blood coming out of ears or eyes
  8. Tiredness
  9. Unconsciousness

Cuts

Children will get many bumps, bruises, and cuts throughout their lives. It is part of exploring the world, growing, and learning.

The following steps will help you take care of your child’s cuts.

  1. Press on the cut until the bleeding stops. If the bleeding does not stop or the cut is deep, your child may need stitches. Keep pressure on the cut and take him to the healthcare professional.
  2. Once the bleeding has stopped, rinse the cut under water for at least 5 minutes. Wash the cut with soap and water. If you are not near water, you can use antiseptic pads (e.g., alcohol wipes) to clean the cut.
  3. Use a new gauze pad to dry the cut.
  4. Put on antibiotic cream.
  5. Cover the cut with a bandage or gauze and tape.
    Cover the cut with a bandage or gauze and tape

Hypothermia

Hypothermia happens when your body loses heat faster than it can make heat. Hypothermia occurs when a child’s body is exposed to cold temperatures for a long period of time.

How to Prevent Hypothermia

  • Wear layers of clothing that can be easily put on and taken off.
  • Wear a warm winter hat that covers the ears.
  • Wear warm mittens.
  • Wear a neck warmer or balaclava.
  • Wear an extra pair of warm socks and warm, waterproof boots.
  • If your child’s clothes get wet, change him into warm and dry clothing as soon as you can.

Warning Signs of Hypothermia

  • Shivering
  • Exhaustion
  • Confusion
  • Fumbling hands
  • Memory loss
  • Slurred speech
  • Drowsiness

Additional Warning Signs of Hypothermia in Babies

  • Bright red and cold skin
  • Very low energy

Keep your child dry and wrap his body, neck, and head in a warm blanket.

What to Do If Your Child has Hypothermia

  • Seek medical attention immediately.
  • Move your child into a warm room.
  • Give your child a warm drink to help increase the body temperature.
  • Keep your child dry and wrap his body, neck, and head in a warm blanket.

Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when a child’s skin freezes. Frostbite can occur if skin is not protected or covered in cold temperatures. The most common body parts to get frostbite are the cheeks, ears, nose, hands, and feet.

Preventing Frostbite

  • Skin can freeze quickly in cold temperatures. Always check the temperature and wind chill factor before going outside.
  • If the temperature or the wind chill is reported as -27°C (-16°F), it is safest for children to stay indoors.
  • Have your child come inside often to warm up and take a break. Staying outside for long periods of time in cold temperatures can be dangerous.
  • Dress children in warm clothing when outdoors in cool and cold temperatures. Children should wear:
    • layers of clothing that can be easily put on and taken off
    • a warm winter hat that covers the ears
    • warm mittens
    • a neck warmer and balaclava
    • an extra pair of warm socks and warm, waterproof boots

Warning Signs of Frostbite

  • The first signs of frostbite are:
    • skin that appears red and swollen
    • skin that feels like it is stinging or burning
  • If there is pain or redness on any area of skin, bring your child out of the cold and cover the area before going outside again.
  • If the skin does not become protected from the cold or is not warmed, the next signs are:
    • skin that appears grey in colour
    • skin that feels like it is tingling
  • If the skin continues to be exposed to the cold, it freezes.
    • Skin will be shiny and white.
    • A child will have no feeling in the area.

What to Do If Your Child has Frostbite

  • Remove any cold clothing that is covering the affected area.
  • Put your child in dry, warm clothing or cover with blankets.
  • Slowly warm up the area by gently covering it with your hand. You may use lukewarm (not hot) water to slowly warm affected body parts.
  • Seek medical attention immediately if your child’s skin is white, waxy, or feels numb.

What NOT to do if Your Child has Frostbite

  • Do not massage frostbitten skin.
  • Do not rub snow on frostbitten skin.
  • Do not use a hot bath, heating pad, heat lamp, or heat from a stove or fireplace to warm affected areas.

Immunization

How do vaccines work?

When you get sick, your body works hard to help you get better. It does this by making antibodies.

Antibodies help your body fight the bacteria and viruses that make you sick. Antibodies can also protect you from getting the same illness in the future. It takes time for your body to make enough antibodies to fight the illness you have. Some illnesses can make you very sick, very fast. You can be very sick and be at risk for complications before your body has made enough antibodies to fight the illness.

When you are immunized, you are given a vaccine. Vaccines cause your body to produce antibodies. Each vaccine is made for a specific disease. These antibodies are stored in your body. These antibodies protect you from these specific illnesses in the future.

Why is Immunization Important?

At birth, your child is immune to some common childhood diseases. This is passed on from mother to child during pregnancy. This immunity will go away or decreases during the first few weeks of your child’s life.

Vaccines can protect your child from some diseases (see chart below). These diseases can make your child very sick and, in some cases, cause death.

Getting your child vaccinated against diseases helps to stop these diseases from spreading. This protects you, your child, and your community.

Vaccination Schedule for Children in Saskatchewan

Children in Saskatchewan are immunized against 13 different diseases. Vaccines are offered through Public Health Clinics and are free of charge. Some vaccines are repeated to make sure your child has developed enough antibodies against specific diseases. These repeated vaccinations are also called booster shots.

Vaccine schedules make sure that your child receives vaccines at certain ages and time intervals. This schedule makes sure that your child is protected against certain infectious diseases.

The chart below shows Saskatchewan’s Vaccination Schedule for children aged 2 months to 6 years. Your child will not receive a separate needle for each disease. Some of the vaccines are combined together.

Click on each illness for a description.

Age Immunizations
2 months diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), polio, meningitis, pneumococcal disease, rotavirus
4 months diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, meningitis, pneumococcal disease, rotavirus
6 months diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, meningitis
12 months meningococcal disease, measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox (varicella), pneumococcal disease
18 months diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, meningitis, measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox
4-6 years diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio
Yearly after 6 months Influenza (flu shot)

For more information about immunizations, click here.

You can keep a record of your child’s vaccinations using the CANImmunize app. This app will also remind you when your child’s next vaccination is due. You can also ask your healthcare professional to print out a copy of this record.

Are vaccinations safe?

The vaccines used in Canada are very safe. It is rare that a child cannot be given a vaccine for medical reasons. Talk to your healthcare professional if you have questions.

For more information about vaccine safety, go to Caring for Kids: Vaccine safety.

Can My Child have Side Effects from Vaccinations?

Some children experience mild reactions to vaccines. Your child may have a sore arm or a fever. This will go away after a few days.

If your child is over the age of 2, give your child Tylenol (acetaminophen) to bring down her fever, if she develops one. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours.

Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can cause damage your child’s liver and brain.

Some children may have more serious side effects from vaccines. If you have any concerns about side effects, please call HealthLine-811 or your healthcare professional.

Flu (Influenza) Vaccine

The flu (influenza) vaccine helps to protect you, your child, and your family from the getting the flu.

In Saskatchewan, you can get flu vaccines for yourself and your child. Children between 6 months and 5 years old can get very sick from the flu. This makes it important for young children to get the flu vaccine.

Contact your local Public Health Clinic, doctor, health centre, or pharmacist for information about getting a flu vaccine. You can also click here for more information.

Toilet Training (2-5)

Learning to use the toilet is a skill that your child is ready to begin learning when she is around 2 years old. Until this time, your child does not have enough muscle control to hold urine in her bladder for a few hours. It usually takes more time for boys than girls to learn how to use the toilet. Learning the complete process can take several years for both boys and girls.

Toilet Training

It is important to make your child’s toilet training as relaxed and simple as possible. The whole process is easiest when your child is ready. Your child must want to take this major step. She will be ready when she becomes eager to please and imitate you, but also wants to be more independent. As your child gains control over her body, there is a new sense of self-esteem, self-control, and independence.

Is Your Child Ready?

The following are signs that your child is ready to toilet train.

  • His bowel movements occur at a regular time.
  • He announces when he is having a bowel movement or peeing.
  • He stays dry for several hours or overnight.
  • He can and will follow instructions.
  • He knows when his bladder is full or when he is about to have a bowel movement. He lets you know through words, facial expressions, or a change in activity.
  • He shows interest in imitating other family members or friends in the bathroom.

When you see the readiness signs, you can provide the needed structure, support, and guidance to make this a positive experience. As with any new skill, learning to use the toilet takes time, patience, and a lot of practice. Parents can expect mistakes or accidents, but can use them as an opportunity for learning.

Even when your child is using the potty all the time in the daytime, your child may still need a diaper overnight.

Tips for Success

  • You will need a child’s potty chair or an adapter for a full-sized toilet. The potty chair works well because the child can plant her feet directly on the floor and can get on the chair by herself. Many children need help getting onto a full-sized toilet and some may fear that they may fall into the bowl. Provide a stool in front of the toilet so that the child can still get on the toilet by herself.
  • For the first few weeks, let your child sit on the potty. This can be with or without a diaper. The aim is to help her feel comfortable with the potty.
  • Show your child how to plant her feet on the ground or stool. This will be important when she has a bowel movement.
  • For the first few months, be aware of your child’s cues to encourage him to use the potty. You will have to rely on grunts, faraway looks in his eyes, or your child squatting in the corner. If possible, take your child to the potty prior to the bowel movement.
  • Set up a routine. Take you toddler to the potty when she gets up in the morning, after breakfast, after lunch, after nap, after dinner, and before a bath. If nothing happens in five minutes, say “I see you do not have to go right now” and let the child go on with other activities.
  • When she succeeds, share her excitement and gently praise. Focus on her accomplishment rather than praising her as a good girl.
  • Make using the potty as routine as eating and sleeping.
  • After she uses the potty regularly, she can gradually switch from diapers to training pants.
  • Your child will also have to learn how to take down her pants and underpants, wipe herself, and then wash her hands when she is finished.
    Your child will also have to learn how to take down her pants and underpants, wipe herself, and then wash her hands when she is finished
  • If you ask your child “Do you have to use the potty?” the usual reply will be “No”. You’ll have more success if you say, “Let’s go to the potty now.”
  • Expect your child to have the occasional accident. A child does not do this on purpose; she is learning a new skill. It takes time. She does not like wet or soiled clothing any more than you do. Be prepared. Carry an extra set of clothes with you at all times, and leave an extra set in the car.
  • If your child has an accident, do not make a big deal of it. This is common and should not be a cause for punishment.
  • You can help yourself to stay relaxed by not taking on this process with a deadline in mind. This puts a great deal of stress on you and your child. If a deadline for potty training is due to child care or preschool, you may want to look at alternative arrangements.

Immunization: Chicken Pox

Chicken pox is caused by a virus. Chicken pox is a common childhood illness. It is also an illness that can be prevented. Both pregnant women and children can be vaccinated to protect them against the chicken pox virus.

Having chicken pox is not dangerous for most children. However, infants and children who have weak immune systems can get very sick and have to be hospitalized. In rare cases, people can die from chicken pox.

Symptoms

Children can be exposed to the chicken pox virus a long time before they have any symptoms. The first symptoms children will have are fever, aches, and pains. Two to three days after these symptoms, children will develop an itchy rash. This rash will look like small pink spots that turn into small water blisters. The water blisters scab over in approximately 5 days.

When to See a Healthcare Professional

See a healthcare professional, if your child:

  • has a chicken pox spot that becomes large, red, and very sore
  • has a lot of spots in her mouth
  • has a new fever after the first one went way
  • does not want to play, eat, or drink

Treatment

  • There is no treatment for chicken pox, although for some high-risk children, healthcare professionals may prescribe anti-viral medication.
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be given to help with fever and body aches.
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can cause damage your child’s liver and brain.
  • A bath with baking soda and warm water can help decrease the itching. There are some lotions that can help. Ask your pharmacist for advice.

Spread

The chicken pox virus is air borne. This means that the virus can spread through the air on water droplets that leave a person who is infected with chicken pox when he breathes, coughs, or sneezes. It can also be spread through contact with the rash or blisters. Once the blisters have dried up and scabbed over, chicken pox is no longer contagious.

Prevention

  • Healthy children should get immunized against chicken pox. People who live with children or work with children should also get the chicken pox vaccine.
  • Chicken pox can be passed from one person to another easily. Keep children home from daycare or school while they are sick. Follow your healthcare professional’s advice about when your child can return to normal activities.
  • Teach your child how to wash his hands. Washing hands is the best way to prevent the spread of diseases.

Immunization: Diphtheria

Diphtheria is caused by bacteria and affects the nose and throat. People who have diphtheria can die from breathing or heart problems. Others might become paralyzed.

Immunization can protect your child and family against diphtheria.

Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system, a system that is spread throughout the body. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system, and lymph nodes can become inflamed when you have an infection.

Immunization: Influenza (Flu)

The flu (influenza) is a respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus. Respiratory refers to all of the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, throat, voice box, windpipe, bronchi, and lungs.

Symptoms

  • Sudden fever
  • Chills and shakes
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Dry cough
  • Sore throat
  • Loss of appetite

Sometimes children with the flu have different symptoms than adults.

These include:

  • Newborns and babies can sometimes have a high fever, but no other symptoms
  • Young children can have a very high fever (over 39.5 C) and may have seizures. Febrile seizures are seizures caused by fevers. These occur frequently in young children. These seizures can be scary for parents but are normal. They are usually not harmful. If you are worried, talk to your health care provider.
  • Young children can also have an upset stomach, stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, ear aches, red eyes, and pain in his back or legs

Young children can get complications from the flu. These include croup, pneumonia, bronchitis, and bacterial infections of the ears, lungs, and sinuses. Children under two can also get chronic conditions that affect the heart, lungs, and nerves.

When to See a Health Care Provider

For a baby under 3 months old, see your health care provider if:

  • Your baby is having trouble breathing
  • Your baby is not eating
  • Your baby is vomiting (throwing up)
  • Your baby has fever 38.5 Celsius or higher

For children over 3 months, call your health care professional if:

  • Your child is breathing rapidly
  • Your child is having a hard time breathing
  • Your child has pain in his chest
  • Your child is coughing up saliva or phlegm with blood in it
  • Your child is coughing so hard that they are vomiting (throwing up)
  • Your child is not drinking much and hasn’t peed in 6 hours
  • Your child has been throwing up for more than 4 hours
  • Your child has severe diarrhea
  • Your child is extremely sleepy, inactive, and cannot be comforted
  • Your child is not better in five days and still has a fever
  • Your child suddenly develops a new fever
  • Your child has a chronic illness, e.g., heart disease or asthma

Call 911 if your child:

  • Has sever trouble breathing
  • Has blue lips
  • Is not able to move
  • Has a stiff neck
  • Is confused
  • Has a seizure

Treatment

  • Offer your child lots of drinks
  • Give your child small, healthy meals
  • Allow your child to get plenty of rest

Coughing and Sore Throat

  • Don’t give cough and cold medicines to children younger than 6 years old unless your doctor prescribes them.
  • Gargling with warm water to ease your child’s sore throat.
  • Child over the age of 3 can suck on sugarless candies to help relieve cold throats and coughs.

Fever

  • Remove extra blankets and clothing so that heat can leave your child’s body.
  • Sweating may make your child get cold. Keep them warm and clothed. Shivering raises body heat and can increase your child’s temperature.
  • Give your child Tylenol (acetaminophen) to help bring down the fever. Give Tylenol according to the directions on the bottle. Do not give more than 5 doses in 24 hours (a day).
  • Do not give your child ASA (Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid). Giving young children ASA can increase their risk of Reye’s syndrome. This syndrome can cause damage your child’s liver and brain.

Medical Treatment

  • Children with chronic diseases may be given antiretroviral medication. This has to be given within 48 hours of your child’s first symptoms.
  • For most children, the best treatment that can be given is plenty of fluids and rest.

Spread

The flu is spread from person to person. There are three ways this can happen.

  1. Direct contact with someone who has the flu.
  2. Contact with something that the person with the flu has touched (e.g., Kleenexes or toys).
  3. When a person with the flu coughs or sneezes, droplets from this can go into the air and the other person can breathe them in through their mouth or nose.

Prevention

  • Immunize yourself and your children. Children over 6 months and pregnant women can get the influenza vaccination . For information about where to get the flu shot, click here.
  • Wash your hands after coughing, sneezing, or wiping/blowing your nose.
  • Wash your hand after having contact with someone who has the flu.
  • If soap is not available, use pre-moistened hand wipes or hand sanitizer. Keep the bottle of hand sanitizer out of the reach of children as it is poisonous.
  • Teach your child to cover his nose and mouth with their upper sleeve, elbow, or Kleenex when he sneezes or coughs.
  • Do not share toys, cups, blankets, towels, or utensils without washing them properly.
  • Follow your child’s day care or school’s policy about attendance.

Immunization: Measles

Measles is caused by a virus and is also known as red measles. People who have measles may develop a rash, fever, or cold-like symptoms. Young children can get complications from measles like swelling of the brain, deafness, seizures, and death.

Immunization can help protect your child and family against measles.

Immunization: Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal disease causes an infection in the lining of the brain and an infection in the blood. Children can have several complications from meningococcal disease such as hearing loss, brain damage, and seizures. Meningococcal disease may cause death.

Immunization can protect your child from meningococcal disease.

Immunization: Mumps

Mumps is caused by a virus. Symptoms of mumps include a rash and swelling of the salivary glands. Young children can get complications from mumps like meningitis, encephalitis, deafness, swollen testicles, and swollen ovaries.

Immunization can help protect your child and family against mumps.

Immunization: Pertussis

Pertussis is caused by bacteria and is commonly called whooping cough. It affects the lungs and throat. Young children can get complications from pertussis like pneumonia, convulsions, and brain damage. Pertussis may also cause death.

Immunization can protect your child and family against pertussis.

Immunization: Pneumococcal Disease

Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria. It can cause an infection in the lungs, brain, blood, ears, and sinuses. It can cause complications like brain damage and deafness. Pneumococcal disease may cause death.

Immunization can protect your child and family against pneumococcal disease.

Immunization: Polio

Polio is caused by a virus and can cause paralysis. Some people who have polio die.

Immunization can protect your child and family against polio.

Immunization: Rotavirus

Rotavirus causes stomach pain, severe diarrhea, fever, and vomiting. It mostly affects babies and young children. Sometimes, children have to go to the hospital because the symptoms can cause dehydration.

Immunization can protect your child from rotavirus.

Immunization: Rubella

Rubella is a virus that is also known as the German measles. Rubella causes a fever, rash, pain in the joints, and swollen lymph nodes. Young children can get complications from rubella like swelling of the brain.

Immunization can help protect your child and family against rubella.

Immunization: Tetanus

Tetanus is caused by bacteria that is found in dirt and is often called lockjaw. Tetanus can cause the muscles in the body to tighten. This is very painful. People who have tetanus can die from breathing problems.

Immunization can protect your child and family against tetanus.

Foods High in Fats

Foods that are high in fat can cause constipation. Some examples of foods that are high in fat are fried foods, processed foods (like luncheon meat), red meat (like some beef), bacon, and cheddar cheese. For more information about fats in food, please click here.

Foods High in Fibre

Eating fibre can help to prevent constipation. There are two types of fibre and both are good for you. The first type helps your body use the nutrients in other foods. The second kind adds bulk to your stool. This makes it easier to have a bowel movement. All foods that come from plants have fibre, like fruits, nuts, and vegetables. For more information about foods that are high in fibre, please click here.

Exercise

Exercise can help to prevent constipation. Exercising helps food move through your intestines faster and helps your intestinal muscles to contract. You can get more information about exercise for children by going to the physical activity section.

Water

Drinking water can help to prevent constipation. Water keeps your stool soft. If you do not have enough water, your stool gets dry and hard. This causes constipation.

Emergency Phone Numbers

Keep emergency numbers with you at all times. Below is a sheet you can fill out; keep one with you (or save the numbers in your phone) and keep one at your house. Click here to print a copy. If other caregivers are taking care of your children, give them a copy of these numbers.

Your contact information:
Emergency Contact:
Healthcare Provider:
Nearest Hospital or Clinic:
Poison Control:
Ambulance:
Police:
Fire:
List of Child’s Medical Concerns:
List of Child’s Medications:

Genitals

Penis, scrotum, vulva.

Quiz

If you would like to receive a certificate for completing this program, you need to complete the quizzes for each section of this resource. Once you have completed all 18 quizzes, you will be able to download your certificate.

You also need to register to get a certificate. If you’re not yet registered, please press go here (connect to register).